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Learning Strategies and Motivation of Procrastinators’ English Proficiency Levels

The purpose of this research is to analyze and compare learning strategies and motivation among procrastinators’ different English proficiency levels in computer assisted language learning (CALL). Thanks to advancement of technology, CALL designed to include face-to-face instructions and outside-classroom e-learning has increased and such blended learning requires more self-regulated learning. In this research, students’ learning behavior in the blended learning was focused. Especially, the characteristics of procrastinators according to English proficiency levels would be discussed.
It is said that there are about 70% of procrastinators at a university (Schouwenburg et. al., 2004) and the procrastination has been viewed as negative factor to academic success (e.g., Hussain & Sultan, 2010; Tan et al., 2008). The academic procrastination was often viewed related to a lack of self-regulated learning (e.g., Wolters, 2003). However, the procrastination may not always have negative effects on learning and some of the procrastinators should use the procrastination intentionally as a result of their self-regulation. Chu and Choi (2005) introduced a concept of active and passive procrastinations and explained active one as intentional decision to procrastinate and ability to complete assigned tasks by the deadline with strong motivation under time pressure. If students are active procrastinators, then they might not need much support from the instructor to complete assignments and tasks by the deadline. Our research project’s goal is to categorize learner types and match the categories and their necessity academic supports in e-learning.
In our previous research related to learning behavior types in CALL courses (Authors, 2013), seven learning behavior types were found: (1) procrastination, (2) learning habit, (3) random, (4) diminished drive, (5) early bird, (6) chevron, and (7) catch-up. When the learning types and English proficiency were compared, the learning type (1) was significantly lower than the learning type (2). However, we assume that the learning type (1) includes both active and passive procrastinators. In order to provide effective learning supports to individuals in CALL, the procrastinators should be categorized further and discriminated into a support necessary group and a support unnecessary group. Students with higher English proficiency were assumed to use procrastination intentionally as active procrastinators.
In this research, 104 undergraduate students, who registered CALL course at a university in Japan during spring semester, 2013, participated in this research. Sixty-four students were categorized as learning type (1) procrastination and analyzed learning strategies and motivation based on their English proficiency. English proficiency was operationally defined as TOEIC-IP scores and three groups were made based on students’ TOEIC-IP score levels: under-300 marks, 400’s, 500’s, and over-600. The students’ perceived learning strategies and motivation were obtained with a researchers-developed questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of 33 5-point Likert scale items related to learning strategy and motivation. The questionnaire was implemented at the end of the first class and TOEIC-IP was conducted on the 9th week of the semester. As the results of comparisons among the groups, learning plan, deal of learning obstacles, and controls of motivation and resources were significantly different.


Yoshiko Goda    
Research Center for Higher Education
Kumamoto University

Yoshiko Goda is Associate Professor at Kumamoto University. She obtained her Ph.D. in Science Education at Florida Institute of Technology. Her specialities are Educational Technology and English Education.

Masanori Yamada    
Kyushu University

Takeshi Matsuda    
Shimane University

Hiroshi Kato    
The Open University in Japan

Yutaka Saito    
Tsukuba University

Hiroyuki Miyagawa    
Aoyama Gakuin University


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