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Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and CALL Usage: A GCC-wide Study

CALL programs have widely been used by teachers to carry out various tasks including- but not limited to- the presentation of materials, promoting interaction, assessing students, and program evaluation. Considering the growing popularity of CALL, understanding teachers’ attitudes and formulating the theory behind them seems crucial in the development and presentation of future technologies. Countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) - Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the UAE- which are among the top 18% countries in the world in terms of their GDP per capita as classified by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in 2012 (Wikipedia, 2012) have begun “investing in education in general and educational technology in particular since the outset of the millennium; however, studies to address the attitudes of teachers region-wide seem too scanty.” (Etedali, 2014) Taking into account Hofstede’s remarks (Hofstede, 1997) which define culture as “the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another”, it could be inferred that language teachers of the above mentioned countries would enjoy a particular technology acceptance model (TAM). As initially proposed by Davis (Davis, 1986), TAM helps forecast individual adoption and the use of technology on a voluntary basis. Based on this model, the perceived usefulness (PU) and the perceived ease of use (PEOU) influence the manner as well as the time of the adoption of the technology in question through the influence they exert on the user’s attitudes.
Adopting the research model devised by Rauniar et al (Rauniar et al, 2012), the current study intends to investigate the influences on the intention of using (IU) CALL programs by GCC language teachers based on individual perceived ease of use (EU), the user’s critical mass (CM), CALL programs capabilities (CP), perceived playfulness (PP), and trustworthiness (TW), and perceived usefulness (PU) through examining the following hypotheses:
1. Perceived EU of a CALL program is positively related to PU.
2. CM of a CALL program is positively related to PU.
3. CP of a CALL program is positively related to the PU.
4. PP of a CALL program for its user is positively related with the perceived benefit of the program in question.
5. PU of a CALL program is positively related with the intention to use (IU) the program in question.
6. IU of CALL a program is positively related with the actual use (AU) of the program in question.
7. TW of a CALL program is positively related with the IU of the program in question.
As work in progress, a survey questionnaire has been developed and data is currently being collected. The findings of this study should help technology developers to come up with programs which are in higher conformity with the common attitudes of the language teaching professionals in this region. Moreover, teachers’ training programs would find the results of this study attractive in developing programs targeted to the language teachers of this region.


Mohammad M. Etedali    
Center for Applied Language Studies
University of Jyvaskyla

Mohammad Etedali is a senior English language teacher at Kuwait University. He is also pursuing his doctoral studies in applied linguistics at the University of Jyvaskyla, Finland. He is mainly interested in the teachers' attitudes towards CALL.


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